Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA), Environmental and Social Impact Assessment and Environmental Management Plan
According to ISO 14064-1 Standard, What Is Corporate Carbon Footprint and Why is it Calculated?
The concept of carbon footprint is the carbon dioxide equivalent of greenhouse gas emission, which expresses a measure of the damage caused to the environment by all kinds of emission activities caused by humans. The corporate carbon footprint, on the other hand, is the carbon dioxide equivalent of greenhouse gas emissions resulting from activities such as production and service, directly or indirectly caused by the activities of the enterprises. There are various studies for carbon footprint calculations on an institution basis. The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 14064-1:2018 Standard is an internationally valid guide. According to this standard, a company’s corporate carbon footprint consists of 6 scopes in total with the update made in 2018.
Direct Greenhouse Gas Emissions (Fossil Fuels consumed for heating and production)
Indirect Greenhouse Gas Emissions (Consumed electricity, heat/steam energy)
Indirect Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Transportation
Indirect Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Purchased Raw Materials and Goods
Indirect Greenhouse Gas Emissions Associated with Customer Use of the Organization’s Products.
Tons of carbon dioxide equivalent of greenhouse gas emissions consisting of these 6 scopes constitute the carbon footprint of the company. After the calculations are made accurately and reliably, they must be reported.
With the corporate carbon footprint study; you can develop strategies to reduce costs and emissions according to your inventory results, increase your productivity in production by working to increase your service quality, and gain a profit in areas such as providing resources and energy efficiency.
What Is the Greenhouse Effect?
The reflected sun rays warm our world more than the rays coming from the sun. Carbon dioxide, methane and water vapor, which are among the reflected rays, are absorbed by other gases in the atmosphere and their return is prevented. Therefore, our world warms. The retention of the sun’s rays by other gases in the atmosphere is called the greenhouse effect. The gas components that cause the greenhouse effect can be caused by both natural processes and human-made activities, namely Carbon Dioxide (CO2), Methane (CH4), Nitrous Oxide (N2O), Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), Perfluorocarbons (PFCs) and Sulfur Hexafluoride (SF6).
Greenhouse Gases from Human Activities
With the industrial revolution, greenhouse gases originating from human activities took place more in the atmosphere component and gradually increased the greenhouse effect. The main activities that create anthropogenic greenhouse gases can be listed as follows:
Combustion of fossil fuels (coal, oil, and gas) for power generation, transportation, industry and domestic use (CO2)
Land use changes such as agriculture (CH4) and deforestation (CO2)
Landfilling of waste (CH4)
Utilizing of industrial fluorinated gases
What is Climate Change and its Potential Risks?
With the increase of the greenhouse effect, increases in temperatures measured on land, sea and air have been observed. It is a fact that we will face natural disasters such as drought, desertification, tsunami and storm in the coming years as our climate changes. Water scarcity, loss of biodiversity and difficulties in accessing raw materials are among the risks that will affect institutions and individuals.
Activities Carried Out in Combating Climate Change from Past to Present
1972- At the UN Conference on the Human Environment (Stockholm Conference), held in Stockholm, many countries with different socio-economic structures and development levels came together for the first time on the subject of "environment". At the end of the conference, the UN Declaration on the Human Environment was adopted.
1992- The UN Conference on Environment and Development (Rio Conference), held in Rio de Janeiro, adopted a set of principles for nations to adopt environmentally conscious management styles.
1997- Countries that signed the Kyoto Protocol within the scope of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change held in Japan have made certain commitments to reduce their emissions of carbon dioxide and five other greenhouse gases (methane, nitrous oxide, hydro chlorofluorocarbon, chlorofluorocarbons, and sulfur hexafluoride). The Protocol entered into force in 2005 with the participation of Russia.
2015- The aim of signing the Paris Agreement within the scope of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change adopted in Paris is to limit the global average temperature increase to 2 °C increase from pre-industrial levels. It aims to regulate the climate change regime after 2020, the expiration date of the Kyoto Protocol.
Paris Climate Agreement, EU Green Deal and Turkey
Turkey signed the Paris Agreement in 2015 for the reduction, adaptation and financing of climate change within the scope of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change to combat the climate crisis. In accordance with this agreement we signed, all sectors that cause greenhouse gas emissions must create climate action plans. In this process, the European Union has determined certain targets and sanctions to support the sustainable plans of the countries with which it cooperates, and published the European Union Green Deal (EU Green Deal) statement in 2019. In this agreement, the Border Carbon Regulation Mechanism was introduced and it was emphasized that carbon emissions originating from products to be exported to the European Union would be priced, that is, taxed. Since Turkey is the second country that exports the most to Europe, studies have started within the framework of these agreements and declarations. In order to achieve the goals of these studies, the production sectors that cause greenhouse gas emissions need to make corporate carbon footprint calculations and reporting to be able to make carbon
management and determine sustainable development strategies.